Development of Novel Alumina by Solid-State Reaction for 99Mo/99mTc Adsorbent Material

Miftakul Munir, Enny Lestari, Hambali Hambali, Kadarisman Kadarisman, Marlina Marlina


Technetium-99m (99mTc), a daughter radionuclide of molybdenum-99 (99Mo), is the most widely used radiodiagnostic agent due to its ideal characteristics. The separation of this radionuclide from 99Mo is commonly performed using alumina. However, a new production method of this radionuclide, which employs a low specific activity 99Mo, makes alumina no longer suitable as separation material. This study aims to develop novel alumina using a facile solid-state reaction for 99Mo/99mTc generator system. The SS-alumina was synthesized from aluminium nitrate nonahydrate and ammonium bicarbonate without solvent. The resulted SS-alumina was then analyzed by FTIR and BET method. 99Mo adsorption and 99mTc releasing study on a series of pH were also performed. FTIR study revealed that the resulting material was Al2O3 with a surface area of 237.65 m2/g. The adsorption capacity, 99mTc yield, 99Mo breakthrough, and alumina breakthrough were 76.06 mg Mo/g alumina, 80.31%, 56.5 µCi/mCi 99mTc, and less than 5 mg/mL, respectively. The elution profile shows a high activity of 99mTc in 2nd and 3rd fraction. It is concluded that the SS-alumina shows good performance as adsorbent material for separation of a 99Mo/99mTc and further work is now underway.


alumina; 99Mo, 99mTc; column chromatography; radionuclide generator

Full Text:



Blaauw, M., Ridikas, D., Baytelesov, S., Salas, P. S. B., Chakrova, Y., Eun-Ha, C., … Van Dong Duong. (2017). Estimation of 99Mo production rates from natural molybdenum in research reactors. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 311(1), 409–418.

Chakravarty, R., Ram, R., & Dash, A. (2014). Comparative Assessment of Nanostructured Metal Oxides: A Potential Step Forward to Develop Clinically Useful 99 Mo/ 99m Tc Generators using (n,γ) 99 Mo. Separation Science and Technology, 49(12), 1825–1837.

Chakravarty, R., Ram, R., Mishra, R., Sen, D., Mazumder, S., Pillai, M. R. A., & Dash, A. (2013). MesopoChakravarty, R., Ram, R., Mishra, R., Sen, D., Mazumder, S., Pillai, M. R. A., & Dash, A. (2013). Mesoporous alumina (MA) based double column approach for development of a clinical scale99Mo/99mTc generator using (n,γ)99Mo: An enticing application o. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 52(33), 11673–11684.

Damjanović, V., Pisk, J., Kuzman, D., Agustin, D., Vrdoljak, V., Stilinović, V., & Cindrić, M. (2019). The synthesis, structure and catalytic properties of the [Mo7O24 (μ-Mo 8 O 26 )Mo7O24]^16−anion formed via two intermediate heptamolybdates [Co(en)3]2[NaMo7O24]Cl·nH2O and (H3O)[Co(en)3]2[Mo7O24]Cl·9H2O. Dalton Transactions, 3–12.

El-Absy, M. A., El-Amir, M. A., Fasih, T. W., Ramadan, H. E., & El-Shahat, M. F. (2014). Preparation of 99Mo/99mTc generator based on alumina 99Mo-molybdate (VI) gel. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 299(3), 1859–1864.

Guedes-Silva, C. C., Ferreira, T. dos S., Carvalho, F. M. S., Paula, C. M. de, & Otubo, L. (2016). Influence of Alumina Phases on the Molybdenum Adsorption Capacity and Chemical Stability for 99Mo/99mTc Generators Columns. Materials Research, 19(4), 791–794.

Jo, D., Lee, K.-H., Kim, H.-C., & Chae, H. (2014). Neutronic and thermal hydraulic analyses of LEU targets irradiated in a research reactor for Molybdenum-99 production. Annals of Nuclear Energy, 71, 467–474.

Jürgens, S., Herrmann, W. A., & Kühn, F. E. (2014). Rhenium and technetium based radiopharmaceuticals: Development and recent advances. Journal of Organometallic Chemistry, 751, 83–89.

Marlina, M, Sarmini, E., Herlina, H., Sriyono, S., Saptiama, I., Setiawan, H., & Kadarisman, K. (2017). Preparation and Characterization of Zirconia Nanomaterial as a Molybdenum-99 Adsorbent. Atom Indonesia, 43(1), 1.

Marlina, Marlina, Sriyono, S., Lestari, E., Abidin, A., Setiawan, H., & Kadarisman, K. (2016). Desain dan Performa Prototipe Generator 99Mo/99mTc dengan Kolom Material Berbasis Zirkonium dan Kolom Alumina. Jurnal Kimia Dan Kemasan, 38(2), 93.

Munir, M, Herlina, Sriyono, Sarmini, E., Abidin, Lubis, H., & Marlina. (2019). Influence of GA Siwabessy Reactor Irradiation Period on The Molybdenum-99 (99Mo) Production by Neutron Activation of Natural Molybdenum to Produce Technetium-99m (99mTc). In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 99, pp. 1–9).

Munir, Miftakul, Sarmini, E., Herlina, H., Pujiyanto, A., Saptiama, I., Kadarisman, K., & Kurnia, S. (2018). Influence Of Drying Time And Temperature On Zirconium-Based Material (ZBM) Properties For 99Mo/99mTc Generator Development. Jurnal Kimia Dan Kemasan, 40(2), 87.

Saptiama, I., Lestari, E., Sarmini, E., Lubis, H., Marlina, M., & Mutalib, A. (2016). Development of 99Mo/99mTc Generator System for Production of Medical Radionuclide 99mTc using a Neutron-activated 99Mo and Zirconium Based Material (ZBM) as its Adsorbent. Atom Indonesia, 42(3), 115.

Saptiama, I, Marlina, M., Sarmini, E., Herlina, H., Sriyono, S., Abidin, A., … Mutalib, A. (2015). The Use of Sodium Hypochlorite Solution for (n,γ) 99Mo/99mTc Generator Based on Zirconium-Based Material (ZBM). Atom Indonesia, 41(2), 103.

Saptiama, Indra, Kaneti, Y. V., Oveisi, H., Suzuki, Y., Tsuchiya, K., Takai, K., … Yamauch, Y. (2018). Molybdenum adsorption properties of alumina-embedded mesoporous silica for medical radioisotope production. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 91(2), 195–200.

Saptiama, Indra, Kaneti, Y. V., Suzuki, Y., Suzuki, Y., Tsuchiya, K., Sakae, T., … Yamauchi, Y. (2017). Mesoporous Alumina as an Effective Adsorbent for Molybdenum (Mo) toward Instant Production of Radioisotope for Medical Use. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 90(10), 1174–1179.

Saptiama, Indra, Kaneti, Y. V., Suzuki, Y., Tsuchiya, K., Fukumitsu, N., Sakae, T., … Yamauchi, Y. (2018). Template-Free Fabrication of Mesoporous Alumina Nanospheres Using Post-Synthesis Water-Ethanol Treatment of Monodispersed Aluminium Glycerate Nanospheres for Molybdenum Adsorption. Small, 14(21), 1800474.

Saptiama, Indra, Kaneti, Y. V., Yuliarto, B., Kumada, H., Tsuchiya, K., Fujita, Y., … Yamauchi, Y. (2019). Biomolecule-Assisted Synthesis of Hierarchical Multilayered Boehmite and Alumina Nanosheets for Enhanced Molybdenum Adsorption. Chemistry - A European Journal, 1–14.

Selivanova, S. V, Lavallée, É., Senta, H., Caouette, L., Mcewan, A. J. B., Guérin, B., … Turcotte, É. (2016). Clinical Trial Using Sodium Pertechnetate. J NucI Med, 58(5), 791–798.

Sholikhah, U. N., Lubis, H., Sarmini, E., Herlina, H., & Wisnukaton, K. (2016). ZIRCONIUM POLYMER CHARACTERISTIC AS 99Mo / 99mTc GENERATOR ABSORBENT FOR DIAGNOSTIC RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS. Widyariset, 2(1), 17.

Sulaiman, S., Sugiharto, Y., Chairuman, C., Setiawan, G., & Gunawan, A. H. (2018). OPTIMASI pH ALUMINA dan 99Mo DALAM PEMBUATAN GENERATOR 99Mo/99mTc BERBASIS MoO3 ALAM. Urania Jurnal Ilmiah Daur Bahan Bakar Nuklir, 24(2), 115–123.

Uzunov, N., Yordanova, G., Salim, S., Stancheva, N., Mineva, V., Meléndez-Alafort, L., & Rosato, A. (2018). Quality assurance of Mo-99/Tc-99m radionuclide generators. Acta Scientifica Naturalis, 5(1), 40–47.

Welsh, J., Bigles, C. I., & Valderrabano, A. (2015). Future U.S. supply of Mo-99 production through fission based LEU/LEU technology. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 305(1), 9–12.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Al-Kimia has been indexed in :

See Google Scholar Profile for Al-Kimia by clicking here.



Supported By:

Creative Commons License All Publication by Al-Kimia are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Visitor Number: StatCounter - Free Web Tracker and Counter View Al-Kimia Stats

Al-Kimia, p-ISSN : 2302-2736, e-ISSN : 2549-9335

Office Address:

Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Islam Negeri Alauddin Makassar, Indonesia
Jl. H. M. Yasin Limpo No. 36 Samata, Gowa, Sulawesi Selatan

Contact Person: +6281-355-514-523,